A kind of hybrid between the purism of open-wheelers and the familiarity of touring car racing, this style of racing is often associated with the annual Le Mans 24 Hours endurance race. First run in 1923, it is one of the oldest motor races still in existence. Other classic but now defunct sports car races include the Italian classics, the Targa Florio (1906 - 1977) and Mille Miglia (1927-1957), and the Mexican Carrera Panamericana. Most top class sports car races emphasise endurance (races are typically anywhere from 2.5 to 24 hours in length), reliability and strategy over pure speed. Longer races usually involve complex pit strategy and regular driver changes—sports car racing is seen more as a team sport than a gladiatorial individual sport, and team managers like John Wyer, Tom Walkinshaw, driver-turned-constructor Henri Pescarolo, Peter Sauber and Reinhold Joest have become almost as famous as many of their drivers.
The prestige of Ferrari, BMW, Porsche, Lotus, Maserati, Alfa Romeo, Lancia, Mercedes-Benz, Jaguar, and Aston Martin derives in part from success in sports car racing and the World Sportscar Championship. Road cars sold by these manufacturers have in many cases been very similar to the cars that were raced, both in engineering and styling. It is this close association with the 'exotic' nature of the cars that serves as a useful distinction between sports car racing and touring cars.
The 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Daytona, and 24 Hours of Le Mans were once widely considered to be the trifecta of sports car racing; driver Ken Miles would have been the only driver to win all three in the same year, but an error in the team orders of the Ford GT40 team at Le Mans in 1966 took the win from him, although he finished first.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Early evolution of sports cars and sports car racing
- 1.2 Post-War Revival and the coming of the World Sports Car Championship
- 1.3 Growth of sports car racing at a national level - Britain, Italy, France, Germany, Japan and the USA
- 1.4 The 1960s and 1970s - evolution of the prototype, rise and decline of sports car racing
- 1.5 The 1980s - Group C and IMSA GTP
- 1.6 The 1990s and beyond - rebirth and revival
- 2 Types of cars
- 3 Notable sports car racing series
- 4 Bibliography
- 5 See also
Early evolution of sports cars and sports car racing
In the 1920s, the cars used in endurance racing and Grand Prix were still basically identical, with fenders and two seats, to carry a mechanic if necessary or permitted. Cars such as the Bugatti Type 35 were almost equally at home in Grands Prix and endurance events, but specialisation gradually started to differentiate the sports-racer from the Grand Prix car. The legendary Alfa Romeo Tipo A Monoposto started the evolution of the true single-seater in the early 1930s; the Grand Prix racer and its miniature voiturette offspring rapidly evolved into high performance single seaters optimised for relatively short races, by dropping fenders and the second seat. During the later 1930s, French constructors, unable to keep up with the progress of the Mercedes-Benz and Auto Union cars in GP racing, withdrew into primarily domestic competition with large-capacity sports cars - marques such as Delahaye, Talbot and the later Bugattis were locally prominent.
Similarly, through the 1920s and 1930s the roadgoing sports/GT car started to emerge as distinct from fast tourers (Le Mans had originally been a race for touring cars) and sports cars, whether descended from primarily roadgoing vehicles or developed from pure-bred racing cars came to dominate races such as Le Mans and the Mille Miglia.
In open-road endurance races across Europe such as the Mille Miglia, Tour de France and Targa Florio, which were often run on dusty roads, the need for fenders and a mechanic or navigator was still there. As mainly Italian cars and races defined the genre, the category was called Gran Turismo, as long distances had to be travelled, rather than running around on short circuits only. Reliability and some basic comfort were necessary in order to endure the task.
Post-War Revival and the coming of the World Sports Car Championship
After the Second World War, sports car racing emerged as a distinct form of racing with its own classic races, and, from 1953, its own FIA sanctioned World Championship. In the 1950s, sports car racing was regarded as almost as important as Grand Prix competition, with major marques like Ferrari, Maserati, Jaguar and Aston Martin investing much effort in their works programmes and supplying cars to customers; sports racers lost their close relationship to road-going sports cars in the 1950s and the major races were contested by dedicated competition cars such as the Jaguar C and D types, the Mercedes 300SLR, Maserati 300S, Aston Martin DBR1 and assorted Ferraris including the first Testa Rossas. Top Grand Prix drivers also competed regularly in sports car racing. After major accidents at the 1955 24 Hours of Le Mans and the 1957 Mille Miglia the power of sports cars was curbed with a 3 litre engine capacity limit applied to them in the World Championship from 1958. From 1962 sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers.<ref>Denis Jenkinson, Automobile Year Book Of Sports Car Racing, 1982</ref>
Growth of sports car racing at a national level - Britain, Italy, France, Germany, Japan and the USA
In national rather than international racing, sports car competition in the 1950s and early 1960s tended to reflect what was locally popular, with the cars that were successful locally often influencing each nation's approach to competing on the international stage.
In the USA, imported Italian, German and British cars battled local hybrids, with initially very distinct East and West Coast scenes; these gradually converged and a number of classic races and important teams emerged including Camoradi, Briggs Cunningham and so on. The US scene tended to feature small MG and Porsche cars in the smaller classes, and imported Jaguar, Maserati, Mercedes-Benz, Allard and Ferrari cars in the larger classes.
A breed of powerful hybrids appeared in the 50s and 60s and raced on both sides of the Atlantic, featuring European chassis and large American engines - from the early Allard cars via hybrids such as Lotus 19s fitted with large engines through to the AC Cobra. The combination of mostly-British chassis and American V8 engines gave rise to the popular and spectacular Can-Am series in the 1960s and 1970s.
In Britain 2-litre sports cars were initially popular (the Bristol engine being readily available and cheap), subsequently 1100 cc sports racers became a very popular category for young drivers (effectively supplanting 500 cc F3), with Lola, Lotus, Cooper and others being very competitive, although at the other end of the scale in the early to mid 1960s the national sports racing scene also attracted sophisticated GTs and later a crop of large-engined "big bangers" the technology of which largely gave rise to Can-Am but soon died out. Clubmans provided much entertainment at club-racing level from the 1960s into the 1990s and John Webb revived interest in big sports prototypes with Thundersports in the 1980s. There was even enough interest in Group C to sustain a C2 championship for a few years; at 'club' level Modified Sports Car ("ModSports") and Production Sports Car ("ProdSports") races remained a feature of most British race meetings into the 1980s, evolving into a "Special GT" series that was essentially Formula Libre for sports or saloon cars. After a relative period of decline in the 1980s a British GT Championship emerged in the mid-90s.
Italy found itself with both grassroots racing with a plethora of Fiat based specials (often termed "etceterinis") and small Alfa Romeos, and exotica such as Maserati and Ferrari - who also sold cars to domestic customers as well as racing on the world stage. Road races such as the Mille Miglia included everything from stock touring cars to World Championship contenders. The Mille Miglia was the largest sporting event in Italy until a fatal accident caused its demise in 1957. The Targa Florio, another tough road race, remained part of the world championship until the 1970s and remained as a local race for many years afterwards.
As the French car industry switched from making large powerful cars to small utilitarian ones, French sports cars of the 1950s and early 1960s tended to be small-capacity and highly aerodynamic (often based on Panhard or Renault components), aimed at winning the "Index of Performance" at Le Mans and Reims and triumphing in handicap races. Between the late 1960s and late 1970s, Matra and Renault made significant and successful efforts to win at Le Mans.
In Germany, domestic production based racing was largely dominated by BMW, Porsche and Mercedes-Benz, although sports car/GT racing gradually became eclipsed by touring cars and the initially sports car based Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft gradually evolved into the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft. Porsche started to evolve a line of sports prototypes from the late 1950s; noted for their toughness and reliability they started to win in races of attrition such as the Targa Florio and as they grew bigger (via the Porsche 910 to the Porsche 908 and finally the Porsche 917) the Stuttgart marque became first a competitor for overall wins and then came to dominate sports car racing - both they and Mercedes have made intermittent returns to the top level of the sport through the 1970s, 80s and 90s.
Sports car racing has intermittently been popular in Japan - in the 1960s small-capacity sports racers and even a local version of the Group 7 cars as raced in Can-Am were popular; a healthy local sports prototype championship ran until the early 1990s and now the Super GT series provides high-budget exposure to manufacturers, with many international drivers appearing. The Japanese manufacturers have also been frequent visitors to the US sports car scene (Nissan and Toyota in particular during the heyday of IMSA) and to the European scene, in particular Le Mans, where despite many years of trying by all the man Japanese marques the only victory to have been scored by a Japanese marque was by Mazda in 1991.
The 1960s and 1970s - evolution of the prototype, rise and decline of sports car racing
Powerful prototypes (effectively pure-bred two-seater racing cars with no real link to production vehicles) started to appear as the 1960s progressed, with worldwide battles between Ferrari, Ford, Porsche, Lotus, Alfa Romeo and Matra as well as other more specialist marques running on into the early 1970s. The competition at Le Mans even made it to the movie screens, with Steve McQueen's film Le Mans. This era was seen by many as the highpoint of sports car racing, with the technology and performance of the cars comfortably in excess of what was seen in Formula 1. Homologation saw many out-and-out racing cars produced in sufficient quantities to see them classed as production vehicles; the FIA responded by placing more restrictions on even the allegedly production-based cars and placed draconian limits on the power available to prototypes - these prototypes of the late 1960s/early 1970s were comfortably quicker than contemporary Grand Prix machinery and for 1972 they were constrained to run much smaller engines to F1 rules, often detuned for endurance. Group 4 Grand Touring Cars and Group 5 Special Production Cars became the premier form of "sports car" racing from 1976, with prototypes going into a general decline apart from Porsche 936 domination at Le Mans and a lower-key series of races for smaller two-litre Group 6 prototypes.
A peculiarly American form of sports car racing was the Can-Am series, in which virtually unlimited sports prototypes competed in relatively short races. This series ran from 1966 to 1974 and was an expansion of the USRRC that conformed to FIA Group 7 rules. The original Can-Am fell victim to rising costs and the energy crisis.
The ACO, organisers of the Le Mans 24 Hours, attempted to come up with a formula that would encourage more prototypes back to the race but would also be relatively economical - their Grand Touring Prototype rules in the late 1970s, based on fuel consumption rules, gave rise to two different varieties of sports car racing that were widely held to be a high point in the history of the sport.
The 1980s - Group C and IMSA GTP
In Europe, the FIA adopted the ACO GTP rules virtually unchanged and sanctioned the Group C World Endurance Championship (or World Sportscar Championship), featuring high-tech closed-cockpit prototypes from Porsche, Aston Martin, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan, Jaguar and others. In the USA, the IMSA Camel GTP series boasted close competition between huge fields of manufacturer-backed teams and privateer squads - the cars were technically similar to Group Cs but used a sliding scale of weights and engine capacities to try to limit performance. Both Group C and GTP had secondary categories, respectively Group C2 and Camel Lights, for less powerful cars, targeting entries by small specialist constructors or serious amateur teams.
The FIA attempted to make Group C into a virtual "two seater Grand Prix" format in the early 1990s, with engine rules in common with F1, short race distances, and a schedule dovetailing with that of the F1 rounds. This drove up costs and drove away entrants and crowds, and by 1993 prototype racing was dead in Europe, with the Peugeot, Jaguar, Toyota and Mercedes-Benz teams all having withdrawn.
The 1990s and beyond - rebirth and revival
In an attempt to provide a top-class endurance racing series to replace the WSPC, a number of GT series sprung up at national and European level, with the BPR series eventually evolving into the FIA GT Championship. IMSA GTP continued for a few more years but was replaced by a series for World Sports Cars - relatively simple open-top prototypes - which gave rise to cars such as the Ferrari 333SP and the Riley & Scott Mk 3, supported by GTs. As the 1990s progressed, these prototypes and others like them started to be raced in Europe and an FIA Sports Car series evolved for them.
The US series evolved into the American Le Mans Series; the European races eventually became the closely-related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs; the FIA remains more interested in its own GT and GT3 championships, with the ACO's rules the basis for the LMS and ALMS. Further splits in the American scene saw the Grand American Road Racing Association form a separate series with its own GT and prototype rules aimed at providing cheaper, lower-cost racing for independent teams.
Since the demise of Group C (where Japan and Germany both had successful series of their own) Japan has largely gone its own way in sports car racing; the Super GT series is for very highly modified production-based cars; although prototypes are slowly returning to Japanese racing in the Japan Le Mans Challenge many of these 'prototypes' are little more than rebodied Formula 3 cars (although there has been a long Japanese tradition of such hybrids; a Grand Champion series ran for many years with rebodied Formula 2 and Formula 3000 cars, rather similar to the second incarnation of Can-Am).
The Trans Am Series dissolved in 2006. However, the SCCA continues to provide a major support series for the more prestigious leagues. This league, known as the Speed World Challenge, consists of two separate one hour races for GT cars and touring cars (respectively). The Trans Am series returned in 2009.
Types of cars
There are many kinds of sports cars that race but they can be broadly broken down into two main categories: Sports prototypes and Grand Touring (GT). These two categories are often mixed together in a single race, such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
Sports prototype is the name given to a type of car used in sports car racing and is effectively the next automotive design and technological step up from road-going supercars and are, along with open-wheel cars, the pinnacle of racing-car design.
The highest level in sports car racing these cars are purpose-built racing cars with enclosed wheels, and either open or closed cockpits. Since the World Sportscar Championship was conceived there have been various regulations regarding bodywork, engine style and size, tyres and aerodynamics to which these cars must be built. Sports-prototypes may be (and often are) one-of-a-kind machines, and need bear no relation to any road-going vehicle, although during the 1990s some manufacturers exploited a loophole in the FIA and ACO rules which meant cars racing in the GT category were actually true sports-prototypes and sired some road-going versions for homologation purposes. The Dauer-Porsche 962LM, Porsche 911 GT1-98, Mercedes CLK-GTR and Toyota GT-One were prime examples of prototypes masquerading as GTs.
In simplistic terms, sports-prototypes are two-seat racing cars with bodywork covering their wheels, and are as technically advanced and, depending on the regulations they are built to, as quick as or quicker than their single-seat counterparts. Although not widely known, sports-prototypes (along with Formula 1 cars) are responsible for introducing the most numbers of new technologies and ideas to motorsport, including rear-wings, ground effect 'venturi' tunnels, fan-assisted aerodynamics and dual-shift gearboxes. Some of these technologies eventually filter down to road cars.
In the ACO regulations, two categories of sports-prototypes are now recognized: P1 and P2. Cars competing in the P1 category must weigh no less than 900 kg and are limited to 6000 cc naturally aspirated and 4000 cc turbocharged engines. 5500 cc turbo-Diesel engines are also permitted in P1 - Audi scored Le Mans victories with such a car in 2006, 2007 and 2008 and Peugeot returned to racing in 2007 with a car with a similar powerplant (Peugeot 908). P2 cars can weigh much less — first 675 kg, then 750 kg and now 825 kg — but are restricted to 3400 cc V6 or V8 normally-aspirated or 2000 cc turbocharged powerplants. In the European series in which endurance is a priority and P2s have been run largely by privateers, P2s have not challenged P1s for outright victories; in the American Le Mans Series with generally shorter races P2 has become the most active prototype category with serious involvement from Porsche and Acura and whereas P2 in Europe tends to involve races of attrition, in the US series the P2s, particularly the Porsche RS Spyder are often quicker round a lap than P1s, with the Porsche having scored many overall victories against the Audis in P1.
Prototype rules for 2010 and beyond will encourage production-based engines (GT1 engines in LMP1, GT2 engines in LMP2) and rules to equalise the performance of petrol and diesel LMP1s are also being addressed.
Daytona Prototypes are a product of the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series, and offer a different interpretation of the prototype theme. DPs, as they are often called, are closed-cockpit, purpose-built racing machines which are less expensive and (deliberately) somewhat slower than Le Mans Prototypes, which were becoming dangerously quick on the Daytona oval and prohibitively expensive for smaller teams to run. Compared to the LMPs, DPs are severely limited in terms of approved technology; for instance, they are required to be constructed of steel tube frames with carbon-fiber skins, rather than being carbon-fiber monocoques, and must use production-based engines. The intention of the DP formula was to provide a class in which tight technical regulations encouraged close competition and where budget would be relatively unimportant. DP chassis are subject to a franchise-like approval system in which only approved constructors are eligible, with rules stability enforced for several years at a time, although this led in 2007 to established constructors like Lola and Dallara entering the 2008 series by taking over the rights of existing constructors (Multimatic and Doran respectively).
Grand Touring (from the Italian word Gran Turismo) racing is the most common form of sports car racing, and is found all over the world, in both international and national series. Historically, Grand Touring cars had to be in series production, but in 1976 the class was split into production based Group 4 Grand Touring Cars and Group 5 Special Production Cars which were essentially pure-bred racing cars with production-lookalike bodies. GT racing gradually fell into abeyance in Europe in the 1980s and 1990s, with silhouette cars continuing to race in IMSA races in the USA. When GT racing revived after the collapse of the World Sports Car Championship at the end of 1992, the lead in defining rules was taken by the ACO. Under the ACO rules, Grand Touring cars are divided into two categories, Grand Touring 1 (GT1, formerly GTS) and Grand Touring 2 (GT2, formerly GT). As the name of the class implies, the exterior of the car closely resembles that of the production version, while the internal fittings may differ greatly. GT2 cars are very similar to the FIA GT2 classification, and are 'pure' GT cars; that is production exotic cars with relatively few internal modifications for racing. The Porsche 911 is currently the most popular car in the GT2 class. 2009 will be the last run of the GT1 class as a result of budgeting issues. GT1 teams are currently enlisting to run their cars in the GT2 class next year.
FIA divides GT cars into four categories called GT1 (formerly GT), GT2 (formerly N-GT), GT3 (recently introduced) and GT4. The GT1 and GT2 divisions are very close to the ACO rules outlined above, and again some crossover racing does occur, particularly in the GT2 class. The GT3 class is relatively new and was introduced for 2006. These cars are closer to standard form than in GT2, and in most cases modifications are restricted to those found in one-make cups. GT4 is another new category for non-professional drivers in production-based cars with very few racing modifications - for example, no aerodynamic aids or body modifications are permitted.
Grand-Am has only one class for Grand Touring cars which allows production-based GT racers at a spec somewhere between FIA GT2 and GT3 in terms of modification (e.g. the Porsche 911 GT3 Cup) to compete with purpose-built tube-frame "silhouette" machines reminiscent of the former IMSA GTO/GTU classes.
Technology Escalation and Control in FIA GT Racing
While GT cars are at least in theory based on road going versions, some GT1 cars in the mid to late 1990s were effectively purpose-built sports-prototypes which spawned exotic production cars with homologation production limits of 25 cars (for small manufacturers, such as Saleen) or 100 cars (for major manufacturers like DaimlerChrysler). The original form of GT1 racing was dropped in 1998 because of rising costs. The GT1 class was for the purebred supercars and purpose-built race cars, such as the McLaren F1 GTR, Ferrari F40, Porsche 911 GT1, Mercedes-Benz CLK GTR, Toyota GT-One and Nissan R390 - while the first two were a derivatives of roadgoing sports cars, the German and Japanese contenders were pure-bred racing cars - virtually sports prototypes. Rising costs coupled with declining entries led to the death of this class, and it was replaced by what was then GT2 (FIA, which evolved into the current GT1) and Le Mans Prototype (LMP, by the ACO).
This process is due to happen again in 2009 as a response to cost increases in GT1 and GT2 racing: for the 2009 season, GT1 and GT2 as they currently stand will be abolished. Various proposals exist to control technology and costs, mainly by abolishing the existing GT1 class and creating new class boundaries between current GT2, GT3 and GT4 cars.
Sports car racing in general extends far beyond ACO and FIA rules, encompassing the Grand-Am professional series as well as amateur road racing classes in the Sports Car Club of America in North America.
Amateur sports car racing throughout the United States is sanctioned by clubs such as the Sports Car Club of America. The SCCA's sports-racing classes include C and D Sports Racing, Sports 2000 and Spec Racer Ford, in descending order of speed and sophistication, as well as a number of production-based and one-make classes.
In Japan, the Super GT series divides cars into two classes, called GT500 and GT300. These cars are less restricted than their European and American counterparts, with cars often sporting tube frame clips and forced induction kits. Teams are also free to change engines with other models made by the manufacturer. The numbers in the classifications refer to the maximum power (horsepower) available to each class; this is achieved through the use of engine restrictors. Proponents of the series claim that the Super GT cars are the fastest sports cars in the world, while critics deride the cars as being outside the limits of 'acceptable' modifications. In recent years however, rule changes in both GT500 and GT1 (aimed at eventually allowing both classes to compete with each other in the future) have brought the cars closer to each other, although GT500 cars still have a notable advantage in terms of aerodynamics and cornering performance (enough to compensate for GT1 cars greater power).
In Europe, although most national championships (British, French, German and the Spanish-based International GT Open) run under FIA/ACO GT regulations with some modifications to ensure closer racing and lower costs, some championships are open to non-homologated GT cars. The Belcar series in Belgium allows silhouettes and touring cars to race alongside GTs, while the VdeV Modern Endurance allows small prototypes from national championships such as the Norma, Centenari and Radical to race alongside GT3 class cars. Britcar permits a wide range of touring and GT cars to compete in endurance races, and Britsports permits various kinds of sports racer.
Notable sports car racing series
- World Sportscar Championship - The former World Championship, which dissolved in 1993.
- American Le Mans Series - Based on the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Run in the United States and Canada. Emerged from the IMSA GT split.
- Speed World Challenge - GT and Touring Car Racing series in the US and Canada
- Rolex Sports Car Series - Grand-Am's top-level US sports car series, emerged from the USRRC
- KONI Challenge - support/feeder series to the Rolex Sports Car Series, mixes sports and touring cars
- Can-Am - Canadian-American Challenge Cup (prototype-based series which ran from 1966 to 1974 and in revised form from 1977-86; revived in 1998 as a part of the USRRC)
- Trans-Am - Trans American Sedan Championship (popular from 1966-72 and lasted until 2006, returned in 2009)
- USERA - United States Endurance Racing Association - Pro-Am Endurance Championship in the United States
- IMSA GT Championship - lasted from 1971-98 and replaced by ALMS and the Rolex Series.
- United States Road Racing Championship- emerged out of the IMSA GT split, became the Rolex Series.
- FIA GT Championship - A GT racing series, predominantly in Europe but some rounds elsewhere
- FIA GT3 European Championship - A GT3 racing series, predominantly in Europe but some rounds elsewhere
- GT4 European Cup - A GT4 racing series, predominantly in Europe but some rounds elsewhere
- Le Mans Series - Sister series to the ALMS, run mostly in Europe (formerly the LMES).
- FIA Sportscar Championship - FIA's now-defunct prototype racing series - most races ended up part of the Le Mans Series
- Interserie - German based series, originally similar to Can-Am
- Belcar (Belgian National GT Championship)
- FFSA GT Championship - France level GT series
- Radical European Masters - European level One-make Sportscars series
- Asian Le Mans Series - Series running LMP1 all the way to GT2 cars.
- All Japan Sports Prototype Championship - Japanese series for Gr. C cars, replaced by JGTC in 1993.
- Japan Le Mans Challenge - Established in 2006, run in Japan.
- Super GT - Japan based Sports Car racing championship (formerly the JGTC).
- Fuji Grand Champion Series - a Japanese series originally for Gr.6 cars, was originally held only in Fuji
- British GT Championship - national level GT series
- Speed - National level endurance car championship run by MotorsportVision Racing. Somtimes called LMP3 cars.
- Thundersports - a British series of the 1980s in which pretty much any kind of sports racer or GT was eligible.
- Clubmans - a long-lived British formula which featured sophisticated, quick but economical front-engined/rear wheel drive sports racers well into the 1990s.
- Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft - German series which originally pitted touring cars against GT racers, Gr 6 and then Gr. C was later added.
- Supercup - A Group C only national series in Germany, replaced DRM and ran until 1989. Not to be confused with the various Porsche Supercup series.
- ADAC GT Masters - ADAC level GT series
- Australian Sports Car Championship - A series which ran from 1969 to 1988. It was for sports racing cars from 1969 to 1975, for production sports cars from 1976 to 1981 and again for sports racing cars from 1982 to 1988.
- Australian GT Championship - A series for GT type cars which ran from 1982 to 1985 and from 2005 to date.
- Australian Nations Cup Championship A series for GT type cars which ran from 2000 to 2004. It was then renamed for 2005 as the Australian GT Championship.
- Denis Jenkinson, "Automobile Year Book Of Sports Car Racing" (photographic history of sports car racing from the early 1950s to the 1970s)
- János Wimpffen, "Time and Two Seats" - 2 vols. Extensive history of World Championship sports car racing from 1952 to the late 1990s.
- János Wimpffen, "Open Roads And Front Engines" - a photographic companion to the above, covering the early 50s-early 60s.
- János Wimpffen, "Winged Sports Cars and Enduring Innovation" - a sequel to the above covering the early 60s-early 70s.
- János Wimpffen, "Spyders and Silhouettes" - a sequel to the above covering the early 70s-early 80s.
- John Wyer, "The Certain Sound" - memoirs of Aston Martin and Ford GT40 team manager
- Chris Nixon, "Racing With The David Brown Aston Martins", 2 vols.
- Anthony Pritchard, "Sports Racing Cars" - profiles of 25 sports racers through history.
- Brooklands Books, "Le Mans" - 5 volumes of contemporary race reports
- Brooklands Books, "Mille Miglia" - 2 volumes of contemporary race reports
- Brooklands Books, "Targa Florio" - 5 volumes of contemporary race reports
- Brooklands Books, "Carrera Panamericana" - 1 volume of contemporary race reports
- Ian Briggs, "Endurance Racing 1982-1991" - the Group C and IMSA GTP years, race by race.
- Michael Cotton, "Directory of World Sports Cars" - IMSA and GpC car histories outlined in detail.
- Andrew Whyte, "Jaguar: Sports Racing and Works Competition Cars" - 2 vols. Authoritative history of the marque.
- Ian Bamsey, ed. "Super Sports: The 220 mph (350 km/h) Le Mans Cars" - technical summary of large-capacity coupés.
- Chris Nixon - "Sports Car Heaven" - Aston Martin vs Ferrari
- Karl Ludvigsen - "Quicksilver Century" - competition history of Mercedes-Benz
- Karl Ludvigsen - "Porsche: Excellence Was Expected" (3 vols) - extensive history of Porsche
- Vic Elford, "Reflections on a Golden Era of Motorsport" - covers Vic's rallying, single seater and mostly sports car career in depth.
- Norbert Singer, "24:16" - his role in Porsche's Le Mans wins
- John Horsman, "Racing In The Rain", an account of his engineering career with Aston Martin, John Wyer and Mirage.
- Curami/Vergnano, "'La Sport' e i suoi artigiani" - Italian domestic sports car competition from the 1930s-1960s and the 'specials' that competed in it.
- J. A. Martin & Ken Wells, "Prototypes: The History of the IMSA GTP Series" - team by team account of various racing teams and manufacturers that competed in the top flight IMSA series.
- Mike Fuller & J. A. Martin, "Inside IMSA's Legendary GTP Race Cars: The Prototype Experience", ISBN 0760330697, Motorbooks International, 25 April 2008. Technical and historical overview of IMSA GTP racers